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Fundamentals of Microprocessors and Microcontrollers B. Microcomputers with CPU being a microprocessor. Microprocessors and Microcontrollers Textbook free Download. Figure B. The following discussion will show how both the 32k RAM memory and the digital. This is mazda pdf service manual rus a single microprocessor configuration. RAM for users program storage.
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What is a Microprocessor? It is a general term that describes all manipulation. What about micro? All of the components that made up the processor were now placed on a single piece of silicon.
The size became several thousand times smaller and the speed became several hundred times faster. Definition of the Microprocessor The microprocessor is a programmable device that takes in numbers, performs on them arithmetic or logical operations according to the program stored in memory and then produces other numbers as a result. Definition Contd. The microprocessor can perform different sets of operations on the data it receives depending on the sequence of instructions supplied in the given program.
By changing the program, the microprocessor manipulates the data in different ways. Each microprocessor is designed to execute a specific group of operations. This group of operations is called an instruction set.
This instruction set defines what the microprocessor can and cannot do. The data that the microprocessor manipulates must come from somewhere. The microprocessor has a very narrow view on life. It only understands binary numbers. A binary digit is called a bit which comes from binary digit. The microprocessor recognizes and processes a group of bits together. They can handle large numbers, but in order to process these numbers, they broke them into 8-bit pieces and processed each group of 8-bits separately.
Usually, each storage device holds one bit. Also, in most kinds of memory, these storage devices are grouped into groups of 8. These 8 storage locations can only be accessed together. So, one can only read or write in terms of bytes to and form memory. It is measured in Kilos, Megas and lately Gigas. So, a KB KiloByte is bytes. Mega is Kilos and Giga is Mega. Then as the microprocessor starts to execute the instructions, it brings the instructions from memory one at a time.
For the user to see the result of the execution of the program, the results must be presented in a human readable form.
A Microprocessor-based system From the above description, we can draw the following block diagram to represent a microprocessor-based system: It provides this information to the microprocessor whenever it is needed. This sub-system includes: Such as programs and data. So is the assembly language.
Then the hexadecimal code is entered into memory. This temporary register is not accessible by the programmer. Demultiplexing AD7-AD0 — From the above description, it becomes obvious that the AD7— AD0 lines are serving a dual purpose and that they need to be demultiplexed to get all the information. However, the low order bits remain for only one clock period and they would be lost if they are not saved externally. Also, notice that the low order bits of the address disappear when they are needed most.
We use the ALE signal to enable this latch. Using the Other Register Pairs — There is also an instruction for moving data from memory to the accumulator without disturbing the contents of the H and L register.
The result is stored in the accumulator. No need to worry about a carry from the lower 8-bits to the upper. It is taken care of automatically. Bit 7 goes to bit 0 AND the Carry flag. Bit 7 goes to the carry and carry goes to bit 0. Bit 0 goes to bit 7 AND the Carry flag.
Bit 0 goes to the carry and carry goes to bit 7. RLC vs. Conditional Branch — Go to new location if a specified condition is met. It will occupy a different number of memory bytes. Load an 8-bit number into the accumulator.
That would make it, That would make it the letter A. MHz, the instruction would require 3. Delay Loops Contd. Is this No — In the figure, the body of Final Count?
You will loose the return address. The Design and Operation of Memory Memory in a microprocessor system is where information data and instructions is kept. It can be classified into two main types: The simple view of RAM is that it is made up of registers that are made up of flip-flops or memory elements.
ROM on the other hand uses diodes instead of the flip-flops to permanently hold the information. Select the right memory chip using part of the address bus. Identify the memory location using the rest of the address bus. Access the data using the data bus. This buffer is a logic circuit that has three states: Logic 0, logic1, and high impedance. When this circuit is in high impedance mode it looks as if it is disconnected from the output completely. The first input behaves like the normal input for the circuit.
This latch has an input where the data comes in. It has an enable input and an output on which data comes out. Data is always present on the input and the output is always set to the contents of the latch. To avoid this, tri-state buffers are added at the input and output of the latch.
The bar over WR means that this is an active low signal. So, if WR is 0 the input data reaches the latch input. If WR is 1 the input of the latch looks like a wire connected to nothing. The RD signal controls the output in a similar manner. Then the microprocessor returns to its previous operations and continues. Then using the appropriate Enable input we enable an individual memory register. What we have just designed is a memory with 4 locations and each location has 4 elements bits.
This memory would be called 4 X 4 [Number of location X number of bits per location]. Since we can never have more than one of these enables active at the same time, we can have them encoded to reduce the number of lines coming into the chip. These encoded lines are the address lines for memory.
The address is applied to the address decoder which generates a single Enable signal to turn on only one of the memory registers. The data is then applied on the data lines and it is stored into the enabled register.
The length total number of locations is a function of the number of address lines. Then it will need 1 memory chip with 64 k locations, or 2 chips with 32 K in each, or 4 with 16 K each or 16 of the 4 K chips, etc. The chip will only work if an active signal is applied on that input.
These address lines are decoded to generate the 2n necessary CS inputs for the memory chips to be used. We will need to use 2 inputs and a decoder to identify which chip will be used at what time. The resulting design would now look like the one on the following slide. An example for the address range and its relationship to the memory chips would be the Post Office Boxes in the post office. Boxes to are in group 0, boxes to are in group 1 and so on. We can look at the box number as if it is made up of two pieces: The upper digit of the box number identifies the group and the lower two digits identify the box within the group.
So, it can address a total of 64K memory locations. If we use memory chips with 1K locations each, then we will need 64 such chips.
The 1K memory chip needs 10 address lines to uniquely identify the 1K locations. Keep in mind that the 10 address lines on the chip gives a range of 00 to 11 or H to 3FFH for each of the chips. The memory chip in this example would require the following circuit on its chip select input: Changing the combination of the address bits connected to the chip select changes the address range for the memory chip. Low-Order Address Lines The address lines from a microprocessor can be classified into two types: This classification is highly dependent on the memory system design.
Lets look at memory width. We said that the width is the number of bits in each memory word. We have been assuming so far that our memory chips have the right width. How would you design a byte wide memory system using these chips? One chip will supply 4 of the data bits per address and the other chip supply the other 4 data bits for the same address.