EN/LZT R2C -i - GSM System Survey t io e n na lly t In Bl n a k -ii- EN/LZT . Ericsson launches the world's first cellular system in Saudi Arabia The RBS software is downloaded from the BSC and stored in a non- volatile. Ericsson Gsm System Survey PDF - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Ericsson-gsm-system-survey-pdf. Download PDF. Downloading. GSM System Survey DISCLAIMER This book is a training document and contains simplifications. Therefore.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Dutch|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
student book, but merely the most important aspects of. Ericsson's GSM systems. Note: as with many survey courses, the student book for this course acts as a. Kindly, find attached Ericsson training document titled "GSM System Survey R9A" . Note that document is Download to read more. Best Regards, Shefo GSM- nvrehs.info ( MB, 95 views). Last edited by. GSM System Survey - GSM基础知识介绍,纯英文。 DOC PPT TXT PDF XLS. 百度文库 · 专业资料 · 工程科技 · 信息与通信 Subscriber Services Overview The Ericsson GSM network provides services that allows charged for quantity of data downloaded Module 14 - Data Calls & GPRS Circuit & Packet.
Both centralized and decentralized network operation is supported. There is a large set of interfaces enabling easy integration with network elements, element managers and multivendor network management centers. Ericsson offers a number of complementary services for adaptation and integration of systems using these interfaces.
The network status is constantly monitored and the operator is immediately alerted when abnormal situations occur which might be an exceeded performance threshold in the performance statistics workflow. Based on this, the situation is analyzed and actions are taken. Performance statistics workflow includes actions to collect data, make trend analysis and present the findings. These findings initiate either the network optimization or the network configuration workflow. The network surveillance workflow is initiated after performance-related alarms.
Radio network optimization workflow is started when a problem is detected somewhere in the network during for example the performance statistics. Included in the workflow are the creation of measurements in the trouble area and the analysis of the report created from this measurement. The output is the result from this analysis is taken care of in the Network configuration workflow.
The actions taken could be a cell re-definition or addition of a BTS. It allows performing upgrades of the node releases in a very time and cost effective way. The workflows secure a high network quality as cost efficiently as possible. They cater for the constant challenges coming from changes in network size and end-user behavior. The challenge is therefore to minimize the time for fault finding, network expansion and network optimization, and thereby maximize the airtime.
OSS RC supports these workflows through corresponding sets of features developed to optimize each workflow. It includes all the basic necessary functions to access and control remotely nodes in the network.
The two main functions supported are basic configuration management and fault management. It contains specially developed scripts to perform e. It has functions to e. The Activity Manager can be programmed to automatically verify the status of each ongoing application. It includes application process supervision, error logging and reporting, trace, restart and communication protocol handling. GNIP can present both geographical and logical views of the network. Filters can be applied to any view to limit the amount of details on the screen and zooming and panning is supported for easy navigation.
Land, water and large cities are presented in a bottom raster layer of the map. The scale is and provides a pixel resolution of x meters.
Additional Maps are provided as an Adaptation Service. The access control function performs automatic log-off of terminals, access restriction of terminal ports, logging of unsuccessful log-on attempts, and password control.
OSS RC also provides a number of authorization mechanisms by which access to network elements and specific management functions can be restricted.
Using common security functions in OSS RC gives an easy to use and secure way of handling the different OSS features and the connections to the network elements. OSS RC alarm handling covers both network element and transmission link alarms, as well as other external alarms. Includes the feature Fault Management Basic. Alarms can be received from any type of network element as long as the corresponding Alarm Adaptation Unit AAU is installed.
Fault Management Viewer FMV contains the functions for viewing the network alarm status on a geographical map and in alarm lists. The Alarm Status Viewer displays the network alarm situation on the GNIP map, and the Alarm List Viewer contains functions for viewing the alarm lists and for searching in the alarm log see figure The alarms can be sorted depending on criteria like time or originating network element, and the complete alarm information is easily displayed by expanding the alarm.
This is achieved through different configuration management tools, using pre-defined templates with complete consistency checks between parameters. The benefits are higher quality and capacity of the radio network in a shorter time, and with less effort from the operator. The user can create a planned area to make some changes without affect the network to reduce risks with wrong update. The maintenance could be done using the consistency check to verify what the result with the changes done.
After that we can use a tool to make available in the live network the attributes changed before. Copy Live 2. Min 4. Report Generated 2 The copy of the Live Network can be used Max to make tests, for instance, cell power change wished 3 After the changes are made, CNA will execute a consistency check to verify if the changes made are correct or not 4 If not, will be generated a report and the changes will be removed.
A wizard facilitates BTS parameter settings through automatic generation of the low- level parameters after the high level settings are done. Consistency checks of cell parameters are performed, whereby the risk of introducing faults is significantly decreased.
Parameters are then downloaded to the network immediately or scheduled for downloading at a future point in time. Network Configurators also make it possible to keep track of hardware installed at the BTS sites, thanks to a hardware register. The package also manages the BTS alarm configuration. Alarms that are not forwarded to OSS RC due to alarm co- ordination or masking can still be retrieved from the BSC and presented in an outstanding alarm report.
All fault and status information of the BTS managed objects is presented in an interpreted and readable way. Cell data in the BSCs and MSCs are mirrored in the CNA database, where users work off-line of the real network when planning the introduction of new cells, or changing parameters in others.
Parameters in the planning area can be checked with operating network parameters in order not to jeopardize network quality with corrupt data.
The update function with time scheduling makes it possible to implement a cellular network configuration overnight. It is especially valuable for data exchange with radio network planning systems. The network browser in the BCM base window contains a list of all BTS replacement units and this is used as entry points to the hardware information.
BHW can also handle off-line information about site equipment, like power supplies, antennas, fans, etc. The function has a planned area allowing the user to work with BTS data without interaction with the network elements. The planned changes can be scheduled for introduction in the network at a time when the changing procedure causes little or no impact on the traffic. A planning wizard is integrated in the application, which guides the user in the complex task of planning new or changed BTS configurations by proposing parameter settings that are consistent with the capabilities offered by different types of BTSs.
Network Optimizers. With this package, measurements and generation of statistics are used to pinpoint performance related problems and provide optimal configuration of the radio network. With an optimally configured network, return on investment is maximized through increased network capacity with a minimum of infrastructure.
Network Optimizers in OSS RC generate performance reports and give recommendations of network improvements, which can directly be downloaded, to the real network. It can be used for general measurements of the service quality or for tracing the radio behavior of specified mobile stations, such as a test mobile, or the equipment of a complaining customer.
Frequency Allocation Support FAS ensures that optimal frequency plans are implemented in order to achieve a high capacity radio network with high speech quality and few dropped calls.
FAS complements cell planning tools by providing uplink and downlink measurements in the live network on free timeslots either in the signaling or traffic channels.
Support for implementing recommended frequency changes is included, and after a frequency reallocation has been made, the result can be studied with the FAS comparison reports. The neighbor relations are defined in network planning tools and NCS verifies these by measurements in the live network and proposes improved parameter settings when necessary.
NCS uses the neighbor cell measurements that the mobile stations make during the connections, complemented with measurements of handover statistics, to determine whether to add or delete candidates in the neighbor cell lists. The user can start or schedule collection of reports of up to BCCH. Results of measurements are then presented to operator to suggest changes in the list of neighboring cell ABAL. Measurement Result Recording MRR collects measurement results that are continuously generated by all mobile stations and base stations in up to 2, cells.
This feature is similar to. Cell Traffic Recording. The following statistical reports about the radio environment are generated: signal strength, path loss between mobile station and base station, signal quality, MS power level, BTS power level, and timing advance. The output of the algorithm is a set of proposed change to the cell plan. Those changes can be automatically downloaded in the network automatic mode , or can be activated manually and by operator recommendation mode.
Neighboring Cell Optimization expert NOX is an expert feature that allows the operator to define algorithms to analyze measurements results produced by NCS.
The output of the algorithm is a set of proposed change in the list of neighboring cells. Those changes can be automatically implemented in the network automatic mode , or can be activated manually and by operator recommendation mode.
Traffic Estimation Tool TET is intended to facilitate capacity enhancements in areas where coverage is good, by, for instance, introducing hot spot micro cells.
TET measures the traffic a new cell would catch. This is achieved by placing a test transmitter on a test site and including its frequency in the active BA lists of surrounding cells. Measurement reports from mobile terminals will then give information on how often the test transmitter BTS represents the best handover candidate. The improved generation of statistics provides the possibility for increased quality and capacity of the radio and core network through early response to problems or negative trends, and shorter turn around time for network optimization.
The package also increases cost efficiency via simplified report generation. The benefit is that the operator will get the highest available radio network performance out of existing equipment, with less effort and at low cost. Thresholds can be set, to alert the operator when statistics are showing an undesirable trend or abnormal situations. The pre-defined reports in OSS RC are designed to fulfill a large set of requirements related to the different part of the operators organization.
Ericsson long experience on what parameters to focus on is available from day one. It is constituted of two parts: an Ericsson specific database and a customer database for own data storage.
It provides the 2nd open interface toward upper systems. In this case it is a GSM Thresholds can be defined both floating and absolute threshold values are supported and alarms are generated if they are crossed. The alarms are sent to the fault management function. The alarm indicates which threshold has been crossed, and the severity level of the alarm is definable by the user.
Network Statistics Analyzer NWS-A is a set of pre-defined reports issued by Report Generator Business Objects, and incorporates the long experience earned by Ericsson in the areas of network planning, optimization and engineering. These pre-defined reports include overview reports, planning reports, dropped call reports and hand-over reports. The benefits are cost efficient fault management and increased in service performance. Rules to discriminate certain types of alarms under certain circumstances can be set by the operator.
When an alarm is received, information about previous handling of similar alarms guides the operator in their action. In simple cases, Network Surveyors can automatically perform the whole process from alarm detection to clearance.
In more complex situations or situations where HW is involved, the package reduces the number of steps to be taken in the alarm handling process. Fault Management expert FMX comprises functions to incorporate expert knowledge into the OSS RC fault management in order to provide users with a clearer and more accurate understanding of the status of the managed network.
FMX correlates and filters alarms from several related network elements based on advanced rules that are defined by the operators with user-friendly drag-and-drop graphics. It correlates and filters alarms from related network elements based on rules developed by Ericsson services.
Software loading and activation is performed both in BTS and AXE switches, and includes everything from small upgrades or error corrections, to complete function changes when introducing, for example, new software releases. Besides speeding up the introduction of new functionality in the network, Software Managers package increases reliability of the process through the.
The package also increases operator efficiency through automatic control of command files.
Function change of SW normally involves extensive command handling, but with OSS RC pre-defined scripts, the task is speeded up, and human errors are minimized. The ability to upgrade many network elements at the same time, and to do this without traveling to sites, leads to less time spent in the upgrading process. Performing the upgrades centrally by the same person also gives a consistency in the network. The registration of the new SW versions is automatic, which means better control of the release handling and easy detection of differences between network nodes.
Software Management Organizer SMO provides the operator with uniform and centralized SW management, and a process oriented way of working with all supported network element types. With SMO the operator can supervise parallel activation jobs towards multiple network elements from one single terminal. For example, for AXE based network elements SMO can execute SW activation of at least 30 elements in parallel while maintaining full control of the process.
In recent years the data rates of fixed modems has increased from 9. GSM phones have been capable of only 9. This gives GSM network operators the possibility to offer new competitive data applications that attract and maintain new end-users. The basic types of telecommunications connection that the DTI handles are, circuit switched.
The circuit is set-up from end to end and is maintained for the duration of the call, regardless of whether it is being used or not.
This is suitable for speech calls. Data can be sent with either of the above methods. The timeslots do not need to be in consecutive order. However, the basic data rate is restricted to a maximum of Non-transparent data using full-rate channel Within standard GSM network all connections are circuit switched. Supported user data rates are 2. This service consists of two establishment phases. PSTN connections supporting V.
This will allow a maximum data rate of 9. The network will be responsible for delivering in one interface what was received in the other.
Interworking attributes may be defined for supporting bearer services over transit networks. During call set-up, by default, the network chooses the maximum rate possible, limited by the MSs multislot class and by a user-set maximum number of time slots.
The user may wish to reduce their bandwidth due to costs or because they do not need it for some time during a call e. If this is not available, the network reduces the number being used and informs the MS to do so also. The network reduces the number of time slots, in the handover or cell congestion cases, if a time slot becomes available at a later stage, the network may assign it to the HSCSD user.
PSTN 6. PAD 4.
DTI 6. The BC includes the bearer service type fax, data and the requested transmission rate. PSPDN is used as an example in the figure above. GPRS is a packet switching technology. The circuit is set up from end to end when it is necessary to transmit or receive information. With each new packet a different connection may be used. This is better suited to applications that have busty type of transmissions, for example, Internet browsing.
The packet data transmission is thus carried out on an end-to-end basis, including air interface. By introducing the GPRS system into the GSM system, it is possible to co-ordinate, attach, authenticate and handle subscriber and terminal data for both circuit-switched and packet-switched communication. The packet data function does not interfere with the circuit- switched services offered by GSM. Data packets sent from the MSs can use different radio channels for different packets during transmission.
An MS can be used for both circuit-switched and packet-switched communication or for either packet-switched and circuit-switched communication. Evolution of the GSM network The existing digital wireless standards continue to be developed to increase capacity, coverage, quality, and data rates.
There has been a series of developments that is still in progress with the aim of enhancing the GSM network functionality. The next enhancement is GPRS, that is, a packet-switched service that allows full mobility and wide-area coverage. In GPRS four coding schemes CS have been defined corresponding to a different ratio of coding bits and information bits. The more coding bits that are added the more transmission is secured, but information rate decreases. Therefore CS 1 is the most secured coding scheme but provides the lowest information rate 9.
CS 4 is the least reliable coding scheme, but has the highest rate of information bits The EDGE standard has been defined for both circuit-switched and packet-switched traffic. Which means that the same service could be supplied by ECSD with fewer timeslots. However, from a core network view the same handling is done, meaning that no changes are needed to existing infrastructure to support EDGE in the core network.
This is the main reason for the higher EDGE bit rates. The differences between the radio and user data rates are the result of whether or not the packet headers are taken into consideration. The data rate of kbps is often used in relation to EDGE. The International Telecommunications Union ITU has defined kbps as the data rate limit required for a service to fulfill the International Mobile Telecommunications IMT standard in a pedestrian environment.
This kbps data rate corresponds to 48 kbps per time slot, assuming an eight-time slot terminal. Every symbol that is transmitted represents one bit; that is, each shift in the phase represents one bit. The symbol rate, or the number of symbols sent within a certain period of time, remains the same as for GMSK, but each symbol now represents three bits instead of one.
The total data rate is therefore increased by a factor of three. Shorter distances increase the risk for misinterpretation of the symbols because it is more difficult for the radio receiver to detect which symbol it has received. Under good radio conditions, this does not matter.
Under poor radio conditions, however, it does. Only under very poor radio environments is GMSK more efficient. Each has different amounts of error-correcting coding that is optimized for different radio environments. These fulfill the same task as the GPRS coding schemes. GPRS user throughput reaches saturation at a maximum of 20 kbps with CS4, whereas the EGPRS bit rate continues to increase as the radio quality increases, until throughput reaches saturation at A packet sent with a higher coding scheme less error correction that is not properly received, can be retransmitted with a lower coding scheme more error correction if the new radio environment requires it.
Resegmentation is not possible with GPRS.
However, an MS that is involved in a packet transfer can receive a page for circuit-switched traffic. The MS can then suspend the packet transfer for the duration of the circuit- switched connection and afterwards resume the packet transfer.
The BSC provides all radio-related functions. The BSC can set up, supervise and disconnect circuit-switched and packet-switched calls. It is a high capacity switch that provides functions including handover, cell configuration data and channel assignment. The RNC controls all radio-related functions. The RNC can set up, supervise and disconnect circuit-switched and packet-switched calls.