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Pierre Verger Orixas Ebook Download

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These symbols can be found in both traditional and contemporary cultural life. For both, the devotee who has undergone a strict initiation process as well as for the initiated who looks to this tradition for spiritual inspiration and connection to the Cosmic World. It is the power to invoke, to create light, or a pathway of positive energy. The following descriptions of their symbol and attributes include the most common and public knowledge about these orixas. He is responsible for the equilibrium of human beings. He is athletic, aggressive and fearless. Ogum dances in a war-like manner. His holy day is Tuesday. His colors are dark blue and green. He has the ability to create sickness and to cure. He dances bent over and very low to the ground, expressing pain and the trembling caused by fever. His day is Monday and his colors are black combined with red or white. She is the protector of secrets and responsible for forming the human body. She dances in a very dignified manner, demonstrating her old age and carries an ibiri rocking it like a baby, symbolizing her relationship with the deceased. Her colors are dark blue, lilac and white.

He is movement and activity. Traces the rainbow in his dance saluting both the heavens and the earth.

His colors are yellow or green and black. He protects those that live by hunting and does not tolerate those who unnecessarily kill. He dances as if he is aggressively hunting with his bow and arrow and his horsehair flywhisk. His colors are light blue or green. He lives 6 months with his father as a hunter and six months with his mother in the rivers as a fisherman. He dances with a bow and arrow and a mirror, representing movement characteristics of both parents.

He is a healer who knows all of the sacred powers of the leaves. He dances imitating the action of picking leaves from the trees and plants, collecting them in his pouch, and passing the leaves over the bodies of those in need of purification.

He is an outstanding dresser as evidenced in his rich ceremonial clothing and enjoys wearing decorative jewelry. His dance is very fast representing his regality, warrior-like nature, virility and connection to lightning.

She is powerful, authoritarian and wages war with weapons in her hands. She dances stirring the air into wind, flirting and advancing into battle.

Her colors are bright to earth red. It is said that she is as delicate as the flow of streams among the rocks, but also as powerful as the great waterfalls.

Dances to a rhythm called ijexa, looking vainly into the mirror that she holds and grooming at her riverbank. Dances as if she is fighting, securing a harpoon in her left hand and a sword in her right.

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Protects all fishermen and ensures them a safe return to her shores. She is calm and nurturing. But, why not include Jamaica?

Although the British influenced this country as much as the United States, we use a different marker in this case: Caribbean. There is a clear arbitrariness in our terms and categories. This question has been answered in specific geopolitical terms and according to hegemonic interests.

(PDF) Dislocating Masculinity: Comparative Ethnographies | Andrea Cornwall - nvrehs.info

This would allow me to transgress the strict borders of African American Studies as a discipline focused on the United States. Similarly, I will show how Latin American Studies has often neglected the African dimension in the Americas, despite many studies about slavery and racism.

Only recently have there been studies on Afro-Latinos. By considering the specific case of African Americans in different contexts and localities within the Americas, I understand Inter-American Studies as an interdisciplinary, international, and intercultural framework.

The African American experience has been subtly dislocated to the periphery of scholarly interest. After the persecution and dispersion of the Jewish people through the centuries, this term gained a social and political meaning, related to the search for a point of reference in time and space that would enable the affirmation of the Jewish collective identity.

Therefore, diaspora can be understood as a process of dislocation.

Another term that has often been related to the African American experience is syncretism. Therefore, in order to bring the neglected aspects of the African American experience to the surface it is necessary to question this emphasis on assimilation without losing sight of the inter-relations that take place among different groups.

This questioning also implies recognizing the problems of categories limited to a nation-state. Yet another concept is multiculturalism, a more recent attempt to integrate the African American experience while avoiding the problem of forced assimilation. Although Hegel defined this dialectics as a central question that emerges in modern societies, 15 this issue remained forgotten for quite some time.

Despite the shortcomings of the concepts mentioned above, it is still possible to retrieve a basic common condition that should be central to our framework of interpretation. In all cases, people experiencing dislocation are acknowledged to have a multiplicity of experiences, with possible inter-relations among them, as exemplified in the multifarious perspectives on African American history.

This implicit plurality represents an alternative to diasporic dislocation, as well as to assimilation through syncretism, and lack of interactions among different parts. For instance, many topics and themes have appeared within discussions on African American identity in Anglo America and resurfaced in Latin America.

Recognizing this trans-location is important, 21 but not enough. We need a plural approach that recognizes different cultures, identities, and discourses located peripherally, which are not only in confrontation or contrast with a given center, but also in a complementary relation to each other.

Thus, what could be defined as external locations needs to be assessed in a multifarious way and measured in relation to the internal discourses and local actors who establish inter-relations and transcend previous limits and borders. We need a wider framework beyond certain approaches that rely too heavily on categories bound to a nation-state.

In this way, we can also account for the spatiality and critical geopolitical aspects of our inter-personal, inter-national, inter-cultural, and inter-geographical relations.

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The framework I am proposing here considers the inter-location of cultures and discourses as well as their possible communication. This should enable us to criticize the imposition of one single biological, historical, linguistic, or cultural marker that negates plurality while exploring ways of using the tools of academic fields such as American Studies, African American Studies, Caribbean Studies, Latin American Studies, and Brazilian Studies to understand the plurality of African American experiences in the Americas.

Secondly, I defined this inter-location in terms of a wider framework that allows for plural interactions, so that we can consider the African American experience not simply as a reference to African American Studies in the United States, but in terms of a polyphony of commonalities and differences in relation to various contexts in the Americas.

In a third step, I want to provide examples pointing towards an Inter- African-Latin- American perspective. To avoid problems with such nomenclatures, we can insist on the term African Americans as both applicable to the whole context of the Americas and specific to particular locations. Rather than presenting and discussing empirical details about these specific locations here, 22 my goal is to explore the possibility of articulating such examples beyond the mere comparison of singularities.

For example, the case of African Americans in Cuba is not simply an interesting sociological fact to be distinguished from the demographic fate of African Americans in Argentina. Although specific cases could be studied by considering historic elements and recent trends in African American Studies in Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Jamaica, Uruguay, or Venezuela and other countries, an Inter-American framework would go beyond the particularities of these cases to explore the importance of interactions.

Therefore, providing examples of these interactions can help us explore this possibility. Writing in , he notices not only a reinvigoration of Black Studies in the past several years, but also the emergence of concepts such as diaspora, Black Atlantic, and others that also affected the historiography of Latin America.

Similarly, a new field began to emerge in Latin American Studies, focusing on Afro-Hispanic language, poetry, and literature. Although this same topic has been studied from the perspective of history, economics, sociology, and many other disciplines, one of the contributions of African American Studies in the United States was to focus on narratives that provide a direct account of this period.

As Gates has shown, even with his successful life as writer and politician, Douglass was still searching for the Self at the end of his life, since he did not know his real name or birthday. Although this kind of research was foundational in the establishment of African American Studies, it was immediately expanded in at least three ways.

First, there emerged a backward-looking archeological process of revealing earlier forms of slave narratives. These narratives do not only constitute a genre, but also a rich source of information on social, economic, political, and cultural slave practices. Washington, W. Therefore, third, new studies began to focus on the role of women, groups such as youth, workers, churches, etc.

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The lack of studies on Black women was much criticized. They have given credence to grossly distorted categories through which the black woman continues to be perceived. Yet another challenge would be more external: How to relate these discussions to the experiences of African Americans elsewhere? One danger is to affirm that these issues are essential to any African American experience. The other danger is to insist on the locality and relativity of particular ineffable experiences.

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