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The Skydiving Warp lets you fall down onto a slime block in spawn, while trying to get some money on the way down. Depending on the server requirements to escape you need to do certain tasks and achieve higher ranks. So I guess as people have talked about and Duncan, so these gravitational waves or ripples in space and time. So, you know, like what Mario described in the beginning. I mean if you think something like the earth or the sun is producing this sort of bend sheet, which sort of represents the curvature of spacetime.
But when, uh, when objects accelerate, when they move. And one example of acceleration is two black holes or two stars orbiting each other, well the earth going around the sun, would actually be producing gravitational wave right now, but that kind of acceleration produces these little ripples in the geometry of space and time.
That produces a very nice sinusoidal pattern in the wave. Let me just stop you for one second. It propagates at the speed of light, so these disturbances propagate at the speed of light. Perhaps a better analog is a seismometer. What does that mean? What does it represent? And then when then for the events at LIGO saw, we take these waveforms, these little ripples, and we try to match them up to our various predictions and when we get good matches we can say that the parameters acquainted the simulations.
That is how we interpret the ripples. So here we have these two objects and they spiral around each other and you can see that they are getting closer and closer. And they emit these ripples which are these gravitational waves.
And the frequency of the waves becomes higher and higher the closer they get together. And eventually boom, they merge together. So please go on. So for example, to do an actual simulation, like something like that, which lasts for perhaps a few dozen orbits, the merger calculates how the gravitational waves propagate.
It might take anywhere from say , to a few million CPU hours. So your typical, like the power in your cell phone these days, cellphones are. Can you just address this? I mean there is this thing that is known as the Chirp. So right, so let me explain. You can almost, you can say, LIGO is listening to the sounds of the universe, so say two black holes, they were orbiting at a certain frequency.
So just a very pure tone. Um, but this, this orbital motion produces gravitational waves and that drains energy from the system. And so they start spiraling around faster and faster and faster. They smashed together. You hit it with a hammer.
Now bells are very efficient at ringing. They ring, they make a good sound for a long time. Black holes are terrible bells. They almost stopped ringing immediately, which is actually an astonishing prediction.
Like how can objects stop ringing that quickly? Be it black holes or like that.
So for example, on earth we have tides and the tides are because of the moon. Basically what happens is that the point that is closest to the moon feels a little bit of a stronger gravity than the center of the Earth, and so the sea goes a little bit higher.
So still the, the sea is higher, now believe it or not, these two neutron stars, even though they only are, they have a mass, a little bit larger, larger than the sun, but they are just six miles, you know, in radius. They still, when they get very close, they can raise tights like this. So tell us a little bit about this and how can you tell whether there are tides or not? READ: Yeah. As they get closer, the influences of their spins and how different the masses starts to come into play.
And then as they get very close to each other, the stars of tides become more and more significant. And what happens is, in addition to energy being drained away by the gravitational waves, some of that energy goes into deforming the star. READ: So you can think of a star at rest has a certain energy and to deform the star to raise the tides, that changes the energy.
It pulls the star out of equilibrium and that, that takes energy to do. So, the forming the tides is another drain on energy. And so it causes the inspiral to accelerate. So the Chirp at the very end of the pattern of the ripples will either get accelerated by tides and then cut off by the stars smashing together.
So that more compact stars will continue their, their black hole like orbit, and then eventually merge in a more simplified way. LIVIO: Basically, how, how much you can deform the star by these tides depends on well we called these, the equation of state. Basically, it depends on how hard it is to deform it, how, you know, how does it respond to trying to change, you know, by applying a force to it out, trying to change that.
READ: Right. If the pressure is high, you have a larger star. So a larger star deforms more, pulls more energy from the system. Black holes are, you should understand that black holes are actually very simple objects. They are characterized by two numbers. Well three in principle, but one is the mass. The second is the spin, how fast they rotate, and the third principle is their electric charge, but in astrophysical objects, there is no real electric charge.
But from these things we can try to determine the mass and the spin and also the orientation of the spin, namely is it rotating around these axes or that axis, and so on. Well and also things like the distance and things like- Walk us a little bit through how do you determine all these parameters from the observations?
Um, so it goes back to what, uh, I think Frans mentioned it first, the chirp. And what we measure is the amplitude of the wave. We measure the frequency of the wave and we also measure the duration of the wave. And during that duration of the signal, the frequency is not steady, but it actually changes.
KALOGERA: So we can measure what we call a frequency derivative, so the frequency of the wave is not a simple sinusoid as you were saying, but the peaks of the, um, of the sinusoid that are coming closer and closer together.
And we can measure that rate with which the frequency is changing. So we have amplitude, frequency and frequency derivative, uh, so that rate of change of the frequency. So these three are the fundamental measurements we make, uh, and, and we can use these three fundamental properties with a little bit extra information that is hard to get into right now.
Uh, but these are the three main things that allow us to decode masses, spins and the distance because the amplitude of the wave is telling us something about how far away is the source and also how massive the object are.
And the change of the amplitude with time and the change of the frequency with time is also telling us something about the spins. Sometimes, not always. Sometimes we go straight in the spins, but sometimes we get very weak constraints on the spins. LIVIO: Maybe we can have an image just so in the case of the neutron stars in particular, we also observed this in ultraviolet light, optical light and so on.
And we have an image of what was actually observed with a swift experiment. So this is the type of thing we see and it is from that type of information that you get all these details that you see here. And that leads me to you Duncan because in this case of the neutron star merger are, there was somewhat of a mishap in that in one of, you see they have this alert system where when something happened because they want to alert other telescopes and this and that, when this neutron star merger happened, it, the alert worked in one of the locations but not in the other.
Tell us a little bit of what happened then. So, so to set the context is, as Frans said, gravitational wave detectors are like listening to the universe. They look in all different directions. So just like my ears can hear sounds from all over this room. If someone over there made a noise, then I could say, okay, my, my brain can localize that. And then when we hear this signaling gravitational ways to then say, point telescopes over there and look over there and see if you can see light in all its different forms coming from these two objects colliding.
BROWN: So we had a system that was set up that would alert us to these, these, uh, these gravitational wave detections. And in order to figure out where sounds are coming from, I have two ears and a very complicated signal processing unit inside my head. So I can, I can detect and I can localize sources.
With gravitational wave detectors, we have three detectives. So these three detectives make a network and the idea is they triangulate on the sky, where were the sources? And so you can say gravitation wave over there, go look. And so they all have to work together. All three detectors have to work together in order to figure out where the source is, like my two ears have to work together. And the real world is a noisy, messy, dirty place.
Things glitch, things ping. There is all these complicated control loops that keep the detector stable. You should take a look at this. And it was just obvious. It was just a beautiful thing. There you go.