Request PDF on ResearchGate | Computer A History of the Information Machine | Scitation is the online home of leading journals and conference proceedings. Martin Campbell-Kelly; William Aspray; Nathan Ensmenger; Jeffrey R Yost. Campbell-Kelly, Martin. Inventing the Computer; Photo: From Babbage's Difference Engine to System/; 5. The tenth-anniversary year a/Computers in Physics comes on the heels ofmany celebrations ofthe 50th birthday ofthe modern computer age. Major anniver-.
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Computer: A History of the Information Machine traces the history of the DownloadPDF MB Read online Personal Computer Software. Computer: A History of the Information Machine by Martin. Campbell-Kelly et al. ( review). Joseph November. IEEE Annals of the History of Computing, Volume. Title, Computer: a history of the information machine / Martin Campbell-Kelly and William Aspray. Author, Campbell-Kelly, Martin; Aspray, William.
The first five chapters, which pertain to precomputing and early computing, have remained essentially the same over the three editions. New to this part of the third edition is the addition of a brief discussion of the precomputer theoretical work of Alonzo Church and Alan Turing.
Substantial revisions appear in the remaining two-thirds of the book. The chapter on the history of software has been overhauled for the better. It now provides a gentler introduction to programming. The arcane by the standards of a popular Project MUSE promotes the creation and dissemination of essential humanities and social science resources through collaboration with libraries, publishers, and scholars worldwide.
LOG IN. In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: If you would like to authenticate using a different subscribed institution that supports Shibboleth authentication or have your own login and password to Project MUSE. Additional Information. A century earlier, Leonardo da Vinci sketched plans for a calculator that were sufficiently complete and correct for modern engineers to build a calculator on their basis.
The first calculator or adding machine to be produced in any quantity and actually used was the Pascaline, or Arithmetic Machine , designed and built by the French mathematician-philosopher Blaise Pascal between and It could only do addition and subtraction, with numbers being entered by manipulating its dials.
Pascal invented the machine for his father, a tax collector, so it was the first business machine too if one does not count the abacus. He built 50 of them over the next 10 years. It was first built in IBM Archives Leibniz was a strong advocate of the binary number system. Binary numbers are ideal for machines because they require only two digits, which can easily be represented by the on and off states of a switch. When computers became electronic, the binary system was particularly appropriate because an electrical circuit is either on or off.
This meant that on could represent true, off could represent false, and the flow of current would directly represent the flow of logic.
Leibniz was prescient in seeing the appropriateness of the binary system in calculating machines, but his machine did not use it. Instead, the Step Reckoner represented numbers in decimal form, as positions on position dials.
Even decimal representation was not a given: in Samuel Morland invented an adding machine specialized for British money—a decidedly nondecimal system. With other activities being mechanized, why not calculation? In Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar of France effectively met this challenge when he built his Arithmometer , the first commercial mass-produced calculating device.
It could perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and, with some more elaborate user involvement, division. The Jacquard loom Calculators such as the Arithmometer remained a fascination after , and their potential for commercial use was well understood. Many other mechanical devices built during the 19th century also performed repetitive functions more or less automatically, but few had any application to computing.
There was one major exception: the Jacquard loom , invented in —05 by a French weaver, Joseph-Marie Jacquard.
The Jacquard loom was a marvel of the Industrial Revolution. A textile-weaving loom, it could also be called the first practical information-processing device.
The loom worked by tugging various-coloured threads into patterns by means of an array of rods. By inserting a card punched with holes, an operator could control the motion of the rods and thereby alter the pattern of the weave.
Moreover, the loom was equipped with a card-reading device that slipped a new card from a prepunched deck into place every time the shuttle was thrown, so that complex weaving patterns could be automated. The Bettmann Archive What was extraordinary about the device was that it transferred the design process from a labour-intensive weaving stage to a card-punching stage.
Once the cards had been punched and assembled, the design was complete, and the loom implemented the design automatically. The Jacquard loom, therefore, could be said to be programmed for different patterns by these decks of punched cards.
For those intent on mechanizing calculations, the Jacquard loom provided important lessons: the sequence of operations that a machine performs could be controlled to make the machine do something quite different; a punched card could be used as a medium for directing the machine; and, most important, a device could be directed to perform different tasks by feeding it instructions in a sort of language—i.
It is not too great a stretch to say that, in the Jacquard loom, programming was invented before the computer. Load Next Page.