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EPRI Perspective The EPRI report, Transmission Line Reference Book, kV and Above (ELR1), was originally printed with a red cover and quickly. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) – Third Edition Transmission Line Reference Book (Red Book) kV and Above. Title printed on CD-ROM: HERBS hyperlinked EPRI redbook (Transmission line reference book kV and above (red book applets)) software (HERBS).
If the current is due to a fault on the line section under consideration, the electrical consequences of conductor motion even clashing are generally unimportant as that section will be tripped out anyway.
However, if the fault is on an adjacent line section, the motion may be serious as it might cause interruption of the unfaulted section. Even though such currents on the compact line may be less than the maximum fault currents attainable on the system, they may be sufficient to be determining in the selection of phase-to-phase spacing or in establishing the need for insulating spacers.
The motion of conductors subjected to electromagnetic forces is similar to that of weighted, stretched strings, with the complication that the string is usually a compound conductor, such as an aluminum conductor, steel reinforced ACSR.
Relatively simple analyses of conductor motion of both vertically and horizontally spaced conductors can be shown to give results well within line design accuracy requirements. It is assumed that the forces to which each catenary span of the conductor is subjected will cause the span to swing in a plane, as shown in FIG.
The plan projection of each catenary is again a catenary FIG.
This assumption, supported by experimental results, simplifies the calculation technique. The most severe fault is phase to phase on adjacent phases, which impresses a cyclic separating electromagnetic force.
Since all spans of a line contributing to a through-fault will behave similarly, the net pole-top force along the span, and therefore motion, will be zero. Consequently, each span can be assumed to be rigidly terminated. For a catenary, At , where is the span length i. Resolving tangentially, the force accelerating conductor swing is eqn.
Using a step-by-step analysis, the conductor velocity 7 Effect of Conductor Stretch As the conductor deflects under load, the effective weight per unit length changes. Resolving perpendicular to the conductor in the conductor plane, using the terminology of FIG. Calculation of Fault Current Motion for Vertically Spaced Conductors As a conductor span moves upward owing to fault current forces, the tension is reduced and the acceleration is restrained by the increase in the effective conductor weight.
Conversely, as a conductor moves downward owing to these forces, the acceleration is inhibited by an increase in conductor tension. Because of these effects, it is important that the modulus of elasticity be considered in calculations.
As a simplifying approximation, it is assumed that the forces to which each conductor is subjected will cause an increase or reduction in sag, but that the conductor will retain a catenary shape. This assumption is supported by experimental results for low currents applied for long durations.
The assumption is even more accurate for high fault current levels and short durations, where most of the kinetic energy is imparted to the conductor before the conductor can move appreciably.
The terminology used in analyzing the vertical case is the same as for the horizontal case. The configuration used as a basis for calculations is illustrated in FIG. Calculation Procedure From the rest position, , that is, all sags are equal. For any other position, assuming both conductors are a catenary, the average separation distance can be expressed: FIG.
Calculation of Tension Change with Motion If an initial conductor length and an initial conductor tension are assumed, then for any subsequent motion resulting in and , [ Calculation of Mechanical Loading on Phase-to-Phase Spacers The electromagnetic forces during a phase-to-phase fault will act to move the conductors apart, placing phase-to-phase spacers in tension.
After the fault is cleared, the conductors will swing together, compressing the spacers. These forces can be analyzed using the diagram of FIG. Using the previously defined terminology, for any subspan swing angle, , This will be the maximum spacer force in both tension and compression for the usual case where the fault has cleared before maximum conductor deflection has occurred. Spacer compression may be calculated with the Manuzio formula Lilien et al. Tests by Lillien et al. Would you also like to submit a review for this item?
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