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Zubair Torwali Published Year: Multi-Line Publications Language: English ISBN: Riyasat-e-Swat to By Dr. Shabir Khan Durrani Genre: Pashto Poetry Published Year: Pashto ISBN: September Language: April Language: Occupy Occupied Media Pamphlet Series.

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Bacha Khan Biography in Urdu. The Pathan By: Khan Abdul Ghani Khan Pu Pata Khazana By M. Hotak Bin Dawood in Pashto. Hotak Bin Dawood Book Details: Pata Khazana Pashto Author: The Pashtuns were gradually Islamized over the period of five cen- turies from the tenth century ce onwards. They are a tribal people with a complex hierarchy composed of unions of tribes, separate tribes, clans and households.

Despite this constant warfare, the Pashtuns possess some sense of unity based on their common language, origin, customs and concepts. Due to its prosodic peculiarities, it made little impact on the develop- ment of written Pashto poetry, which stylistically and topically was strongly influenced by classical Persian models Kushef However, given the peculiarities of the Pashto language notably the lack of a clear distinction between short and long vowels, which makes a differentiation between short and long syllables almost impos- sible, and the fact that clusters of two or even three consonants occur, usually at the beginning of a word , the Pashto meters are not quan- titative.

Nevertheless, many Pashto authors tried to imitate certain aspects of aruz, though in a rather clumsy way. The meter of Pashtun folk songs, where the feet are marked by regular patterns of accents, fits Pashto poetry more naturally MacKenzie , I, pp. Therefore, those authors who unabashedly adopted folklore poetical forms usually wrote the more eloquent poetry.

Thus alongside classical ghazal often called loba with two introduc- tory lines and the rhyme aa-ba-ca-da, there also exists a specific Pa- shto ghazal with different rhyme-schemes MacKenzie , p. The most popular rhyme-schemes in Pashto are 8, 12, 14, 15 and syllables with possible apocope varia- tions for more details on Pashto rhyme see Pelevin , pp. Early and classical Pashto poetry It seems impossible to establish exact dates for the beginning of Pashto literature.

According to local tradition the oldest available poem in Pashto dates back to the eighth century ce. Al- though Pashtun tradition claims that the Daftar was composed at the beginning of the fifteenth century ce, evidence from various sources suggests that the yusufzays led by Shaikh Mali did not conquer Swat before the s.

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Later Afghan sources also mention 2 Poetry in classical genres can also be sung, but less commonly, although its performance is often accompanied by music Kaleem , p.

For a description of the performance of Pashto poetry see Girs , pp. However, it is now generally assumed that the work is a forgery made in Afghanistan in the s Gerasimova; Girs , p. In any case, the dating of all the texts it contains is entirely arbitrary. This is the period of the Rowshani4 literary activities. The conscious use of the Pashto language seems to be a distinctive watershed, as it marked the beginning of the cultural self-awareness of the Pash- tuns, and of their opposition to the language of the dominant high culture, Persian.

It appears that the Rowshani movement was not an isolated phenomenon. In India and adjacent regions the turn of the second Hejri millennium 16th century witnessed the spread of popular Sufi movements, as opposed to the more intellectual and elitist Sufism of previous centuries. These movements, many of them fueled by millenarian expectations, started to use vernacu- lar languages for preaching their eclectic doctrines to their many adepts, who often came from the lower classes.

The Rowshaniyya c — was a predominantly Pashtun Sufi movement which flourished at the time of the expansion of the Mughal Empire to the Pashtun tribal area.

His ancestors acted as commu- nal religious servants. By appealing to the individual religious feel- ings of their followers at the expense of their tribal identity, the Rowshani leaders diverted the Pashtuns from their tribal life, and created a new political and religious entity of their followers.

Initially, the founder of the Rowshani movement tried to attract as many personal followers as he could, forming with them classical Sufi master-disciple relationships. This body of followers forms an Islamic co- alition addressing a particular religious issue, which also acquires a political dimension. This Sufi-tribal alliance did not last long, as both Rowshani doctrine and political practice undermined tribal structures. The tribes, wishing to preserve their identity, eventu- ally deserted the movement.

This led to the defeat of the Rowshani movement and its eventual collapse. The Rowshani literary period lasted for about a century from the end of the sixteenth to the second half of the seventeenth cen- tury. It was followed by the post-Rowshani period, when the re- ligious heritage of the sectarians was suppressed but their literary techniques were imitated and further developed by a new genera- tion of Pashtun authors.

This introduction is primar- ily devoted to the examination of the nature of God and the ways to know Him. The inevitability of death and the Day of Judgment are also considered. In order to keep the rhyme, Persian words with appropriate endings are introduced where Pashto does not provide the necessary rhyme. From the stylistic point of view the book is remarkable for its length, poor structure, and consistent repetition of the same ideas.

Indeed, only the first pages of the introductory part of this manuscript are written in four languages. The same subject is conveyed repeatedly, passage by passage, first in Arabic, then in Persian, Pashto, and an uniden- tified Indian language just over a hundred words.

The multilingual versions continue as far as fol. Thereafter the narration is entirely in Pashto, with some Arabic quotations and their Persian translation.

Furthermore, S. Rizvi —68, pp. It is written in simple Persian and the sentences are occasionally incomplete and unintelligible. It is not clear whether this manuscript represents the Persian portion of the book or a translation. He therefore had to cope with the two-fold nature of a message that was specifi- cally addressed to Pashtuns, but implicitly also to non-Pashtuns. Besides, the fact that only the Pashto version has been copied the Berlin MS , may indicate that only this Pashto version was consid- ered sacred.

Certain peculiarities can be noticed in the plurals, pronouns Morgenstierne —40, pp. The text is also characterized by awkward syn- tax and certain corrupted or archaic grammatical forms, especially in the ergative construction, and by its vocabulary. Therefore, the meaning of the text is sometimes obscure. Morgenstierne —40, pp. Morgenstierne argues that the fact that the same orthographic peculiarities are also found in other medieval Pashto manuscripts points to a previous literary tradition.

Then all letters of the Pashto alphabet are given. Therefore, this treatise is a kind of introduction to the Rowshani creed and religious practice. Its content is arranged according to the five pillars of Islam. A specific Rowshani perspective becomes apparent only in the spiritual interpretation of these acts. The author also briefly mentions that on these higher levels the performance of the ritual acts is altered because of their mystical interpretation.

Illegible sections in the manuscripts further add to the difficulties, as was noted by the editor. Stylistically, the book is not uniform. The first part is devoted to general theological problems which are skillfully described, while the second part of the book contains lengthy monotonous descrip- tions of ritual acts.

The chapters in the manuscripts are not numbered. Every chapter begins with an introductory formula written in red in the manuscripts. He was admired by many Pashtun poets. The date of his birth is unknown. Raverty , p. There is also a view first expressed by Raverty , p.

Blumhardt and MacKenzie , p. He had numerous disci- ples in Swat, Bajaur, Kandahar and Herat. Not participating in any Rowshani military campaigns, he lived quietly in one of the semi- independent Rajput states. He received a pension from the Mughal authorities but did not like to attend the court where he had numer- ous enemies.

It is also said that in the latter years of his life, when married and settled in Tirah, he renounced the Rowshani creed and repented of everything he had written. Contrary to the general opinion of Pashtun scholars, he did not use aruz; the meter of his works is not quantitative i. His rhyming is very precise, and he often employs internal rhyme. Only thirty letters of the Pashto alphabet are used for these final rhymes. The only known eighteenth-century manuscript of his poems is kept in the British Library.

Beginning from the thirty-first poem, all ghazals are in alphabetic order ac- cording to the final rhymes. Most of the poems have headings or introductions in Persian, written in red ink. The third part of the volume was written by a different scribe. Another book by Mokhles is a small theological treatise on Haq- iqat Truth.

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This work was written in prose with the insertion of some Pashto verses by Mokhles himself and other Rowshani poets. A number of other Rowshani authors still remain relatively ob- scure.

Little is known about their lives since they are only briefly mentioned by their admirers or opponents.

Their works, apart from those published in Afghan periodicals, remain inaccessible. Man- nanov —84, p. Only a few of his poems were published. In emphasizing the importance of the Rowshani movement for Pashtun culture, I refer not only to the amount and significance of the texts produced by the followers of the movement and their opponents, but also to the beginning of the conscious use of the Pashto language. As was mentioned earlier, the founder of the Rowshani movement was not himself a Pashtun.

However, as often happens to charismatic leaders, he was not welcomed in his native community and eventually was forced to look for refuge among the Pashtuns, where he began to put his teaching into written shape.

Like many other Muslim thinkers, at times he simply followed the well-established tradition of writing in Arabic and Persian, the languages of theology and high culture.

Since Sufi guides became po- litical figures and witch-doctors, affiliation to a number of Sufi authorities became possible. For more educated men, Sufi affiliation became a formal- ity which was necessary for the improvement of their social status.

According to Raverty , p. Kushev , p.

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Kushev , pp. This text is called a poem, although it has neither rhyme nor meter. They differ considerably in the arrangement of chapters and slightly in their contents. The work is very popular among the Pa- shtuns and a large number of manuscripts of it are available in the Pashtun lands.

Thirty-five copies, the earliest from the eighteenth century, are mentioned in the academic literature see Blumhardt and MacKenzie , pp. Neverthe- less, he was proud to claim that as a master of the pen he was the equal of the famous Rowshani poets. During the Pashtun expansion to the South in the 14th—17th cen- turies, the Khattaks settled between the Indus River and Peshawar.

They occupied a strategic position and controlled the vitally impor- tant Khyber Pass, which connects India with what is now Afghani- stan. Thus they became one of the few Pashtun tribes to come into close contact with the Mughal Empire. When he was released from the imperial prison he joined the rebel confederacy of the Pashtun Afridi and Momand tribes.

As usual in their dealings with the Pashtuns, the Mughals used the power of gold.

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He therefore resigned the tribal chieftainship in favor of his eldest son Ashraf, and devoted himself to books and literature. The fig- ure is no doubt an exaggeration. Nevertheless, he is the author of numerous works, both in Persian and Pashto, on a wide range of subjects such as war and statecraft, medicine, divination, falconry, house-building, childrearing, theology and ethics. He left an ac- count of his checkered life and his family history as well as some translations from Arabic.

His meter is still syllabic, but the rhythm is created by stress, which is not fixed in Pashto. The stress usually recurs on every fourth syllable MacKenzie , pp. His poetry is courageous, harsh and straightforward.

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