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Veterinary Herbal Medicine A body-systems based review explores herbal medicine in context, offering PDF MB Password: nvrehs.info Help. Discover ideas about Veterinary Studies. Veterinary Herbal Medicine by Susan G . Wynn, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Veterinary. RESEARCH IN VETERINARY HERBAL DRUGS. Rajeev Singh, nvrehs.info & nvrehs.infotava. Faculty of Veterinary Sciences & Animal Husbandry.
Ultimately, based on the specified inclusion criteria, a total of 26 documents, i. Generally, DCF value of above 0.
Data Analysis This systematic review employed descriptive and explanatory analysis. Results and Discussion 3. The documents used for this systematic review were characterized based on the developed inclusion criteria that only focused on EVM knowledge.
One can predict the practice of EVM based on the number of livestock and the vegetation cover of specific area. Almost all ecological zones, ethnic groups and communities have been identified in trusting EVM without the limitations of the availability and accessibility of infrastructure. The systematic review revealed that different EVM plant species from families were identified from the included documents.
Table 1: Summary statistics of the documents used in the systematic review. This result is in line with [ 39 ] which stated the younger generation in Ethiopia is increasingly losing interest in learning about the medicinal herbs. The educational levels of all the informants or healers of the pastoral LPS were below college.
The systematic review revealed that measure of reliability 13 In pastoral LPS, the proportion of plant families which were represented by more than one plant species 61 Herbs both from integrated and from pastoral LPS showed higher average proportion of Pastoral LPS used lower average proportion This might be due to plant reservation capacity of specific ecologies. Some EVM plants are available only in certain seasons of the year.
This might often hinder the application of traditional medicine. Moreover, some of the preparations use mixtures of plants which are difficult to find at specific season [ 40 ]. Table 2: Sources and habits of EVM plants. Oral route of administration Topical and nasal routes were the second and third routes of administration in both LPS and at country level. The proportion of dermal 8. This might be due to the fact that prevalence rate of dermal and respiratory ailments in pastoral LPS is higher than other livestock ailments.
The result of this systematic review is in line with [ 13 — 16 , 18 , 30 ]. Plant Part Used for Treatment Different plant parts used in treating livestock ailments are described in Figures 1 a and 1 b. Leaf was the major plant part used to treat livestock ailments both in integrated The second and third majorly used plant parts both in integrated The finding of this systematic review is in line with [ 13 , 16 ].
Figure 1: a Integrated and b pastoral LPS plant parts used to treat livestock ailments. Black leg was indexed first 43 0. Tree species like Justice schimperiana, Allium sativum, and Lapidum sativum were the frequently documented plant species used to treat blackleg. Other livestock ailments, i. This result is supported by the works [ 9 , 12 , 13 , 16 , 20 , 22 , 34 ] which indicates different DCF value of livestock ailment from the selected documents reveal that less than six plants are specifically used to treat specific livestock ailment from integrated LPS.
The majorly treated livestock ailments of this study were supported by number of documents [ 19 , 20 , 29 , 34 ]. However, this result is in contrast with [ 18 , 27 ] which indicate the majorly treated livestock ailments are diarrhea and wound rather than black leg.
The in agreement might be due to the prevalence rate of most livestock ailments from different agroecology oblige healers and respondents to focus on frequently occurring ailment with long years of experience in treatment. Table 4: Frequently treated diseases and DCF of major livestock ailments.
The frequently utilized EVM plant family was Fabaceae 45 8. Fabaceae 72 Croton macrostachyus Bisana 15 The result of this systematic review is supported by [ 14 , 16 , 30 ]. Other studies [ 13 , 16 , 19 , 20 , 22 , 26 , 27 ] report that the frequently utilized plant families and species are in contrast to the finding of this systematic review.
Agroecological factors can determine the type and abundance of EVM plants that can grow in an area [ 5 ]. Moreover, the utilization frequency of those effective EVM plant species might coincide with the presence of bioactive ingredients against livestock ailments.
The frequency of using such EVM plant families and species might be correlated to the prevalence rate of some livestock ailments such as ticks and flies in pastoral LPs demand specific EVM plant species like Calpurnia aurea Hits awuts Table 4.
Table 5: Most frequently utilized EVM plant families and species used to treat livestock ailments. Black leg Aba gorba , diarrhea Tekimat , wound Kusil , and bloat Yehod meketet are the four mostly treated livestock ailments. Women and younger generation contribution and involvement in the preparation and knowledge development of ethnic medicine are very insignificant. Moreover, the majority of the documents lack information about herbal toxic effect, dosage, measurability and conservation.
Revealing the appropriate dosage in divergent preparation and use patterns of herbal remedies among multiethnolinguistic communities, as well as associated toxicity risks and countermeasures, generally demand deeper and exhaustive investigations. Therefore, sustainable development and exploitation strategy which focus on protecting the endangered medicinal plants necessitate coordinated multidisciplinary research programs that give due credit to create responsible traditional practitioners and commercial investors.
Conflicts of Interest The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
References M. Caudell, M. Quinlan, R. Quinlan, and D. Pankhurst and T. View at Google Scholar N. Dharani, A.
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Wanyama, M. View at Google Scholar T. Sori, M. Bekana, G. Adugna, and E. View at Google Scholar R. N Alves and I. Lohani, K. Rajbhandari, and K. Mekonnen, F. Tessema, M. Yilma, T.
Getachew, and M. View at Google Scholar G. Eshetu, T. Dejene, L. E-mail: yomialfred yahoo. In the last 20 years in the United States, the common equipment used in the processing of increasing public dissatisfaction with the cost of medicinal herbs.
In addition, mortar and pestle, stone prescription medications, combined with an interest in rollers male and female , and steel crucibles are used to returning to natural or organic remedies, has led to an pulverize dried slices of medicinal herbs. Mixing is usually increase in the use of herbal medicines. Nearly one-third done in small ceramic cups or earthenware cover lids. Most of these people Annual sales of herbal products was 1 billion in , and were men.
The womenfolk were not heard but it was dis- in 3. The interest of herbal covered that in almost all local markets in Nigeria, women medicine has increased immensely in the last few years; engaged in the sales of herbal plants and medicine and unfortunately the herbal knowledge has not increased as engaged in the treatment of some diseases.
But there are rapid as the sales, meaning that there is a great number no available data of their contribution to herbal medicine. What are their preservation used together to enhance effectiveness and synergistic strategies?
Why they are not heard of? And how can we actions and to reduce toxicity. Herbal medicine includes improve their participation and practice of herbal medi- such amazingly effective agents as willow bark providing cine and what is the implication of these to agricultural salicylate, which is an Aspirin-like and effective pain killer, development? Ondo State is made up of 18 Local Government Areas is periwinkle or Vinca a predecessor of the potent cancer located in the South-western Zone of Nigeria.
Ogun States and in the South by the Atlantic Ocean. It has a land Teas are simply dried herbs left to soak for a few minutes area of 14, Ondo state in hot water, while other teas are the herbs boiled in falls between the mangrove and the rain forest Zones. The area water and then strained for consumption. Syrups, made has a mean annual rainfall ranging from to mm and a temperature range of It is coughs. Tinctures and liquid extracts are solvents Equator.
Ekiti State falls within the rain forest Zone.
The mean annual ingredients of the herbs. It has a land area of 6, km2. By material is prepared with five to ten parts by weight of Census, the population of Ekiti State was 1,, while the the liquid.
Liquid extracts are more concentrated than estimated population upon its creation on October 1st was put tinctures and are typically a concentration. A dry at 1,, with the capital located at Ado-Ekiti. The State is mainly an upland zone, rising above m above the sea level. It extract form is the most concentrated form of an herbal lies within the area underlain by metamorphic rock of the basement product typically - and is sold as a tablet, complex.
It has a generally undulating land surface with a capsule, or lozenge.
Whether single herbs are Ekiti and Okemesi-Ekiti. The State is dotted with rugged hills Figure 3. From each Local Government upon the spread of activity of each herb and whether or Area, 2 villages were randomly selected and seven herbal medicine not it supplies the necessary spectrum of action in the body. These make a Sharp knives, chopping boards, wicker baskets, wooden total of respondents. A structured interview schedule was Adebo and Alfred Figure 1.
Map of Nigeria. Data collected were gender have a large family sizes however the family size subjected to descriptive statistical analysis. Both Socio-economic characteristics gender engaged in all the religious practices in their area but a large percentage of the male gender engaged in the Data in Table 1 indicates that majority The low level of education of medicine practitioner in Ekiti and Ondo States were the female gender might be one of the major reasons women.
The ages of the male respondents range from 31 why they are not as popular as their male counterparts. Majority Also, majority The educational status of both male and female respondents was very low. However, the per- They treat various kinds of ailments from fractures from centage of males with tertiary education was higher when accident cases to malaria fever, Typhoid fever, Yellow compared with the female respondents Data in Table 2 percentage Both the male and female most frequently by patients with infertility and children J.
Figure 2. Map of Ondo State. Figure 3. Map of Ekiti State.