Introduction to Work Study (4th ed.) by George Kanawaty. Read online, or download in secure PDF format. Intro to Work Study - ILO - George Kanawaty - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) , Text File .txt) or read book online. Introduction to Work Study - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read The editor of this edition was George Kanawaty, then Chief of the ILO.
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Clik here to Download this book: eBook Introduction to Work Study George Kanawaty for Ipad. Available in the National Library of Australia collection. Format: Book; xvii, p. : ill ; 28 cm. [PDF DOWNLOAD] Introduction to Work Study *Full Pages* By George Kanawaty Author: George Kanawaty. Pages: pages. Publisher: International.
The use of time standards 1. From analysis to synthesis Combining methods and tasks: New forms of work organization 1. Part Six.
Distribution curve showing probabilities of combinations when large samples are used Curve of normal distribution Nomogram for determining number of observations Example of a simple work sampling record sheet Work sampling record sheet showing machine utilization and distribution of idle time Work sampling record sheet showing distribution of time on ten elements of work performed by a group of four workers A decimal-minute stop-watch Time study boards An electronic stop-watch An electronic study board General-purpose time study top sheet Continuation sheet for general-purpose time study front Simple type of short cycle study form Short cycle study form front Short cycle study form back Study summary sheet Analysis of studies sheet Distribution of times taken by workers to perform a given job Effect of ineffective time on performance Effect of payment-by-results incentive on the time taken to perform an operation Effect of extension on the time of an element A graphical method of selecting basic time An example of a study summary sheet produced using electronic capture devices Cumulative average basic times for a constant element Allowances How the standard time for a simple manual job is made up Explanatory diagram of machine time Milling operation: Improved method Machine interference Result of method study on milling operation Four operations with machine elements Card giving details of elements and break points Sketch of part and of workplace layout Timestudy top sheet Time study continuation sheet page 2 Time study continuation sheet page 3 Working sheet XVI 5.
Properties of various industrial floor surfaces 43 Recommended minimum values of illumination for various classes of visual task 46 Recommended maximum lighting intensity ratios 46 Duration of continuous noise exposure which should not be exceeded to ensure the prevention of occupational deafness amongst the majority of workers 54 Control of working climate 58 CONTENTS 6. Basic needs, quality of life and productivity In the world population stood at 2.
By the year it will reach 6. Over 90 per cent of that increase has occurred in developing countries. By the year close to 1 billion people will be living below the poverty line and struggling to meet their basic needs. These basic needs are: D Food Enough food every day to generate the energy needed for living and working.
D Clothing Enough clothing to afford protection from adverse weather conditions and to permit bodily cleanliness.
D Shelter A shelter that provides protection under healthy conditions and that is equipped with certain household equipment and furniture. D Security Security against violence and against unemployment, and that provides for one's personal needs in sickness or old age. D Health and essential services Safe drinking-water, sanitation, access to energy use, medical care, education and a means of transport. For better-off segments of the population, the aspiration is to raise their standard of living further and improve their quality of life.
This is foreseen as an improvement in the quality of these basic needs, and in the range and quantity available so that a person exerts the option of choice among various alternatives, for example in housing, clothing or food. Human aspirations also extend to a desire for a healthier and cleaner environment, cultural activities, the ability to have and make use of leisure time in an enjoyable manner, and an income that would allow a person to support these various endeavours.
For a society or a nation to raise the standard of living of its population, it must strive to maximize the return from its resources or improve productivity so that the economy can grow and sustain a better quality of life. What is productivity? The term "productivity" can be used to assess or measure the extent to which a certain output can be extracted from a given input.
While this appears simple enough in cases where both the output and the input are tangible and can be easily measured, productivity can be more difficult to estimate once intangibles are introduced. Let us take an example.
A potter working eight hours a day produces pots a month using a wood-fired kiln. D Let us assume that as a result of a change in the method of work he was able to produce pots a month instead of with the same equipment and hours of work.
His productivity calculated in terms of number of pots produced will then have increased by 25 per cent.
If he wants to assess his productivity gain, the potter may be more interested in using monetary terms rather than simply the number of pots produced. His input has not changed. First, productivity was used to measure increase in output expressed in numbers of pots produced, in the first case, and in monetary terms in the second, giving different values in each case.
In other words, depending on what one is interested in measuring, the nature of the output and input will vary accordingly.
Second, while actual production increased in this example from to pots, productivity in monetary terms did not show the same corresponding increase. This means that we have to distinguish between increased production and increased productivity, which in this example was measured in terms of monetary gains.
Let us continue with our example and assume that the potter decided to replace his wood-fired kiln by an oil-fired kiln. Let us also assume that his production remained constant at pots a month. Measured in monetary terms, the value of his output is X 1. However, our potter may wish to argue that as a result of the new kiln his quality has improved, that he will have fewer rejects returned and that the users' satisfaction will increase over time so that he may be able to increase his price again.
Furthermore, his own sense of satisfaction at work has improved, as it has become much easier to operate the new kiln. Here, the definition of the output has been enlarged to encompass quality and a relatively intangible factor, that of consumer satisfaction. Similarly, the input now encompasses another intangible factor, that of satisfaction at work.
Thus productivity gains become more difficult to measure accurately because of these intangible factors and because of the time lag that needs to be estimated until users' satisfaction will permit an increase in prices of the pots produced in the new kiln.
This simple example helps to show that the factors affecting productivity in an organization are many, and often interrelated. Many people have been misled into thinking of productivity exclusively as the productivity of labour, mainly because labour productivity usually forms the basis for published statistics on the subject.
It also becomes evident how, in a community or a country, improving productivity or extracting the best possible yield from available resources does not mean exploitation of labour but the harnessing of all available resources to stimulate a higher rate of growth that can be used for social betterment, a higher standard of living and an improved quality of life.
In this book, however, we will be restricting ourselves to productivity issues and more specifically to work study as it applies to the individual enterprise.
Productivity in the individual enterprise Productivity in the individual enterprise may be affected by a series of external factors, as well as by a number of deficiencies in its operations or internal factors.
Examples of external factors include the availability of raw materials and skilled labour, government policies towards taxation and tariffs, existing infrastructure, capital availability and interest rates, and adjustment measures applied to the economy or to certain sectors by the government. These external factors are beyond the control of any one employer.
Other factors, however, are within the control of managers in an enterprise and these are the ones that will be discussed. The output and input factors n an enterprise In a typical enterprise the output is normally defined in terms of products or services rendered. In a manufacturing concern, products are expressed in numbers, by value and by conformity to predetermined quality standards. The second and third parts deal respectively with method study and work measurement, the two main techniques of work study.
The last part contains a number of appendices. A note on the use of this book as an aid to teaching will be found in Appendix 1. This note, which is based on experience in the field, gives suggested selections and breakdowns of chapters for two different types of courses. Obviously, there is no implication that the text or the arrangement of the subject should be followed slavishly.
The great value of having teachers with practical experience of any subject is the vivid realism and the special knowledge which their experience enables them to put into their lectures. However, much of the material in this book is basic, and it is hoped that these notes may help those preparing lectures and courses by providing them with essential material to which they can add from their own stores of knowledge. Any such book is bound to be a compromise and, like all com- promises, there will be points of weakness.
The main problem in writing this book has been not what to include but what to omit. It has also been necessary to present some of the subject-matter in a rather over-simplified form and more dogmatically than the current state of knowledge and experience may warrant, or than would be done in a textbook intended for people more familiar with the subject. It is not claimed that the techniques described here, especially in the chapters on work measurement, are necessarily the best available or that they represent the most up-to-date practices.
They do, however, represent systems which have been widely and successfully applied in many parts of the world for a number of years. They have worked and they still do work, and they have contributed substantially to the attainment of high productivity in North America and Western Europe. It has been shown that they can contribute to increased productivity in the industrially less developed countries.
The reader cannot, of course, expect to be able to apply these techniques merely as a result of studying this book. It is not intended as a textbook but rather as an introduction, an aid to teaching and a reminder of what will be learned in systematic courses. Work study is a practical technique and it can only be learned practically under the guidance of experienced teachers. Since it first appeared in definitive form in over , copies have been sold or distributed in English, French and Spanish, the three working languages of the I.
Although intended for use in developing countries, the book has become the standard introductory textbook in teaching institutions in certain industrially advanced countries, notably the United Kingdom. As its title suggests, the book was intended as an introduction to the subject and not as an exhaustive textbook. Its aim is to provide trainees and teachers with the basic elements on which they could develop their knowledge of more advanced practices and special applications.
As a matter of policy it was confined to the basic elements of work study alone and did not embrace such questions as incentive schemes with which work study, especially work measurement, is usually asso- ciated. Nor did it attempt to deal with advanced work study techniques. It was written in the first place because an examination of current literature in the work study field showed that no simple and comprehensive handbook suitable for providing a basic introduction existed.
The unexpected success of the book seems to have justified the view that it has filled a need. More than ten years have passed since the first impression appeared and usage in many countries has brought to light shortcomings in the original text. There have also been certain developments which, it is felt, should be dealt with or treated more fully. The preparation of the second edition has been made the occasion for a complete overhaul of the text, especially of Part III, Work Measurement, which has been radically rewritten.
However, the original intention has been adhered to and advanced techniques or special applications are mentioned but not treated in depth. When the first edition was written there was no uniform glossary of work study terms or system of application in any English-speaking country, although standard systems existed through the national institutions in France and Germany.
It was therefore decided to adopt a terminology and systems of method study and work measurement which, while based on practice in the United Kingdom, were suffi- ciently generally applicable and accepted as to provide the basic grounding which vii would enable students to understand and subsequently adopt any other system which they might be required to use.
The result, inevitably, was a compromise which left strong exponents of particular systems somewhat unsatisfied, but which seems to have served its purpose. In considering what modifications should be made to the second edition, the authors took account of the fact that in the British Standards Institution published the British Standard Glossary of Terms in Work Study B.
This Glossary was the result of several years work by a Committee of the Institu- tion widely representative of practitioners of different systems of work study, the principal professional institutions concerned, employers' organisations and the Trades Union Congress, and represents the outcome of their collective thinking. It is by far the most comprehensive attempt to rationalise and standardise work study terminology and practice which has yet been achieved.
Although it is recog- nised that, as an international agency, the I.