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Methods of measuring co-efficient of friction: Capstan method is most commonly used to measure co-efficient of fraction. Capstan method can be classified into two classes- 1.
Static capstan method 2. Dynamic capstan method Other methods- 1. They are — 1. Frictional at only one point of contact. Average friction at a great number of contacts. Description and use of the friction meter A sketch of the friction meter is given in figure 1.
A horizontal table about 6 inches square, having a smooth surface, is located between a torsion element and a drum. The torsion element has a clamp for attaching one of a pair of fabric specimens required for a test.
Deflections of the torsion element are indicated on a dial gauge. The drum is provided with a clamp for attaching the other fabric specimen to it and a crank for winding the specimen on the drum.
A metal block weighing 1 pound and having a lower surface 10 square inches in area 3 inches by 3.
In making a test, two specimens about 10 inches long and 3. An end of one specimen is fastened in the clamp on the drum so that the fabric lies face up on the table of the instrument. An end of the other specimen is fastened in the clamp on the torsion element so that it lies face down on the specimen attached to the drum. The weight is placed centrally on top of the test specimens. The crank is then turned at a steady rate of approximately 30 revolutions per minute, thus drawing the lower specimen from under the upper one at a speed approximating 2.
Friction Meter The specimen is drawn through until its free end reaches the back edge of the weight and then, without unclamping, the specimens are put back in their original positions and the process is repeated.
The constant or nearly constant value indicated on the dial of the gage the second time the lower specimen is withdrawn is noted. This is taken to be the coefficient of kinetic friction of the fabric sliding on it when the scale on the dial indicates the frictional force in pounds, as provided below, and the 1 pound load is used.
The average of the results obtained by testing two pairs of specimens is sufficiently duplicable for most purposes. Capstan measurement setup The capstan measuring approach was used to investigate the frictional behaviour of surgical suture with artificial skin. When a textile material is pulled over a cylindrical body, a frictional force develops between material and cylinder surface due to normal force generated by tensions T1 and T2 exerted on the ends.
The contact angle sweeps out that portion of circumference over which the contact occurs. The capstan method is designed according the Capstan Equation, which has been the subject of many theoretical and experimental studies in fiber friction.
Capstan experiment for friction characterization of surgical sutures.
A capstan measurement setup, as illustrated in Fig. The drum is supported by mounts fitted with ball bearings at the ends of the drum on a single aluminium plate. One motor is connected to one end of the drum, which is mounted on the same base plate fitted with ball bearings. There is a motor gearhead between the drum with motor to compensate the misalignments. During the tests, the drum surface is covered with artificial skin by double-side tape. End A of surgical suture is fixed to the load cell; and end B is attached to an applied load.
The artificial skin was cleaned with acetone and ethanol- impregnated textile wipe, successively before each measurement. During the experiment, the artificial skin was mounted at the cylindrical surface of the metal drum, and fixed with the double-sided foam tape.
Then, a surgical suture was draped over the cleaned artificial skin, and surgical suture end A Fig.
Subsequently, an applied load T1 was stably fixed and suspend on the end B of the surgical suture. In each test, the loading duration from the connecting of load to the start of frictional motion is controlled in about 10 s. Tests were carried out in the conditions with or without FBS. FBS was added on the surface of artificial skin at the frequency of one drop per five second.
The measured loads ranged from 0. Each test was repeated for at least three times. The apparent coefficient of friction was calculated by averaging the Sampled signal at a steady state approximately 5 s after starting the motor. Flat bed method The principle of measurement is based on the rectilinear motion of a wooden sled pulled over a rectangular fabric specimen mounted on horizontal platform.
The sled is pulled by the cross head at a constant speed by means of an inextensible towing yarn passing over a frictionless pulley as shown in fig. Nishimastu and Sawaki studied frictional behavior in pile fabrics using an apparatus based on unidirectional motion. The top square fabric was moved over a stationary bottom rectangular fabric and the resisting frictional force was recorded at various normal loads. Another apparatus was developed by Zurek to study frictional behavior of filament fabrics.
It involved reciprocating motion, where the top square fabric moved back and forth over the bottom rectangular stationary fabric. The frictional response was recorded at various load levels.
Carr et al developed an apparatus involving unidirectional motion. The top square sled covered with fabric was moved against a fixed bottom rectangular fabric and frictional force was recorded at various levels of contact pressures.
Flat bed method Frictional properties influences: In fiber stage 1. The behavior of fiber during drafting. The frictional force holds together the fiber in yarn, i. In yarn stage 1.
If the frictional force is too low, yarn strength will be low. Friction increases the luster and smoothness of yarn. Friction makes more clean yarn. Friction increases hairiness. Friction occurs nep formation. K r gopalakrishna machine drawing pdfpdf ebook and , free pdf ebooks user's guide, manuals,.. With our online resources, you.. Machine Drawing in First Angle Projection. Subhas Stores, - Drawing - pages.
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