Services marketing zeithaml pdf


PDF | Services marketing strategy focuses on delivering processes, From: Zeithaml, Valarie A., Mary Jo Bitner, and Dwayne D. Gremler. Services Marketing Zeithaml Pdf - [Free] Services Marketing Zeithaml Pdf [PDF] [ EPUB]. Services marketing is a specialised branch of. page of the text, and compare this to the version number of the latest PDF version of the text on the website. the UK Services Marketing Conference for a number of years. .. Zeithaml of the University of North Carolina.

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Services Marketing Zeithaml Pdf

Valarie A. Zeithaml and Mary Jo Bitner, “Services Marketing – Integrating Customer Focus Across The Firm”,. 3rd edition; McGraw Hill (35). 2. K. Rama Mohana. Revised edition of the authors' Services marketing, c Dr. Zeithaml served on the Board of Directors of the American Marketing Association and more up to one year, accessed July 6, ; http:// in. Solutions Manual for Services Marketing 7th Edition by Zeithaml IBSN . PDF. * This course used the Canadian Edition by Zeithaml, Bitner.

Boldness has genius, magic and power in it. However, it is likely that few give much thought to the kinds of messages these documents can communicate. This is particularly ironic in a services marketing course, where we teach students that managing the physical evidence of service e. Educational services are highly intangible offerings. In fact, they are shown at the extreme right of the Tangibility Spectrum presented in Figure 1. This implies that they are high in credence and experience characteristics and thus are more difficult to evaluate than products that are dominated by tangible attributes. Students are very concerned with trying to predict the quality of their upcoming educational experiences at the beginning of each semester and they carefully scrutinize any available physical evidence or search attributes for clues. Syllabi take on great importance since they are among the first bits of tangible information that students get about teachers and courses. What is transmitted either intentionally or accidentally can have a dramatic effect on student behavior and classroom culture. Remember that there is no second chance to make a good first impression— especially if your Services Marketing course is an elective!

What is transmitted either intentionally or accidentally can have a dramatic effect on student behavior and classroom culture. Remember that there is no second chance to make a good first impression— especially if your Services Marketing course is an elective!

At best, your syllabus can clearly communicate your goals and objectives in language that is friendly, respectful, and understandable to students. It can be an excellent stimulus for a class discussion about your beliefs and expectations regarding individual and class behavior, and you can even facilitate greater course ownership by letting students participate in some aspects of syllabus design.

While syllabi can be very helpful in communicating course content and expectations, they can also work against you in unintended ways. If your message does not match your underlying educational goals for your students, you may be providing inconsistent or incompatible physical evidence that will create confusion and mistrust as students try to figure out what you really expect from them.

In this case, you are actually widening Gap 4 in your own educational service delivery. For example, if your syllabus is formal or condescending in tone or does not demonstrate that active learning is a valued part of the course content, it is very difficult to get students to fully participate in creating a collaborative or active learning environment.

As you design your syllabus, you may want to carefully consider all of the tangible cues that you are providing in addition to the description of the course content and use them in the most effective way to positively communicate with students.

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Tornike Jashi. Sima Dey. Firms that learn from their failures — which often result from not fully understanding their customers' expectations — can reduce or eliminate the listening gap. Even when a company has a thorough and ongoing understanding of its customers' expectations, it is still very possible, in fact, quite easy, to fail to deliver quality service.

Focusing on gap 2, the design and standards gap, is the next step toward ensuring against such failure. This gap is concerned with translating customer expectations into actual service designs and developing standards to measure service operations against customer expectations. Figure 3 summarizes several key strategies for closing gap 2. Because of the nature of services their process orientation, intangibility, cocreation by customers , it is more challenging to engage in these typical steps that are so well established in other industries.

Figure 3 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint Strategies for closing the design and standards gap. A second strategy for closing gap 2 relates to understanding the total customer experience and designing all elements of that experience in ways that meet or exceed customer expectations. This involves considering everything that occurs from the moment the customer engages the service through the entire length of the service experience.

Viewing these operational elements from the customer's perspective and designing them to be consistent with expectations, or to reinforce a desired service image, are critical to closing gap 2. Because of the special challenges inherent in designing services, techniques such as service blueprinting have evolved to aid in the design process Zeithaml, Bitner, and Gremler, The purpose of a service blueprint is to make a complex and intangible service concrete through its visual depiction of all of the steps, actors, processes, and physical evidence of the service.

The key feature of service blueprints is their focus on the customer — the customer's experience is documented before any of the internal processes are determined. Standards signal to contact personnel what the management priorities are and which types of performance really count. When service standards are absent or when the standards in place do not reflect customers' expectations, quality of service as perceived by customers is likely to suffer. The final strategy that closes gap 2 involves the use of physical evidence in service design and in meeting customer expectations.

The servicescape, the physical setting where the service is delivered, is a particular focus of physical evidence and is critical in industries such as restaurants and hotels to communicate about the service and make the entire experience pleasurable. In these cases, the servicescape plays a variety of roles, from serving as a visual metaphor for what the company stands for to actually facilitating the activities of both consumers and employees.

Given the importance of physical evidence and its potentially powerful influence on both customers and employees, it is important for firms to think strategically about the design and management of the tangible evidence of service. Standards must be backed by appropriate resources people, systems, and technology and also must be enforced to be effective — that is, employees must be measured and compensated on the basis of performance along those standards.

Thus, even when standards accurately reflect customers' expectations, if the company fails to provide support for those standards — if it does not facilitate, encourage, and require their achievement — standards do no good. When the level of service delivery falls short of the standards, it falls short of what customers expect as well.

Narrowing gap 3 by ensuring that all the resources needed to achieve the standards are in place reduces the customer gap. The key strategies for closing gap 3 are depicted in Figure 4.

The first strategy is to align the firm's human resource strategies around delivering service excellence. In creating such a workforce, an organization must hire the right people, develop those people to deliver service quality, and retain the best people. To effectively deliver service quality, considerable attention should also be focused on recruiting and hiring the right service personnel. Once the right people are in place, to provide quality service they need to be developed through ongoing training in the necessary technical skills and interactive skills. | Strategic Management | Marketing

An organization that hires the right people and trains and develops them to deliver service quality must also work to retain them. If a company wants the strongest service performers to stay with the organization, it must reward and promote them.

Figure 4 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint Strategies for closing the service performance gap. Services marketing is about promises made and promises kept to customers. Figure 5 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint The services marketing triangle. The triangle shows the three interlinked groups that work together to develop, promote, and deliver services.

Providers can be the firm's employees, subcontractors, or outsourced entities who actually deliver the company's services. Between these three points on the triangle, three types of marketing must be successfully carried out for a service to succeed: external marketing, interactive marketing, and internal marketing.

But external marketing is just the beginning for services marketers: promises made must be kept.

This is where promises are kept or broken by the firm's employees, subcontractors, or agents. People are critical at this juncture. If promises are not kept, customers become dissatisfied and eventually leave. The left side of the triangle suggests the critical role played by internal marketing. Management engages in these activities to aid the providers in their ability to deliver on the service promise: recruiting, training, motivating, rewarding, and providing equipment and technology.


Unless service employees are able and willing to deliver on the promises made, the firm will not be successful, and the services triangle will collapse. All three sides of the triangle are essential to complete the whole, and the sides of the triangle should be aligned — that is, what is promised through external marketing should be the same as what is delivered; and the enabling activities inside the organization should be aligned with what is expected of service providers.

Therefore, a second strategy for closing the performance gap is to define customers' roles and assist them in understanding and performing their roles effectively. Sometimes customers widen gap 3 because they lack understanding of their roles and exactly what they are to do in a given situation or because they are unwilling or unable to perform for some reason.

To reduce this gap the organization needs to clearly define and communicate what the customer's role entails — in essence, the customer's job description.

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